Emendamenti al Protocollo sulle mine antiuomo

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Creato Lunedì, 02 Agosto 2010 19:01
Ultima modifica il Giovedì, 08 Novembre 2012 11:08
Pubblicato Lunedì, 02 Agosto 2010 19:01
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Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and
Other Devices as amended on 3 May 1996 (Protocol II to the 1980 Convention as
amended on 3 May 1996)


Article I - Scope of application

1. This Protocol relates to the use on land of the mines, booby-traps and other devices, defined
herein, including mines laid to interdict beaches, waterway crossings or river crossings, but does not
apply to the use of anti-ship mines at sea or in inland waterways.
2. This Protocol shall apply, in addition to situations referred to in Article I of this Convention, to
situations referred to in Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949. This
Protocol shall not apply to situations of internal disturbances and tensions, such as riots, isolated
and sporadic acts of violence and other acts of a similar nature, as not being armed conflicts.
3. In case of armed conflicts not of an international character occurring in the territory of one of the
High Contracting Parties, each party to the conflict shall be bound to apply the prohibitions and
restrictions of this Protocol.
4. Nothing in this Protocol shall be invoked for the purpose of affecting the sovereignty of a State or
the responsibility of the Government, by all legitimate means, to maintain or re-establish law and
order in the
State or to defend the national unity and territorial integrity of the State.
5. Nothing in this Protocol shall be invoked as a justification for intervening, directly or indirectly,
for any reason whatever, in the armed conflict or in the internal or external affairs of the High
Contracting Party in the territory of which that conflict occurs.
6. The application of the provisions of this Protocol to parties to a conflict, which are not High
Contracting Parties that have accepted this Protocol, shall not change their legal status or the legal
status of a disputed territory, either explicitly or implicitly.

 

Article 2 -Definitions

For the purpose of this Protocol:
1. "Mine" means a munition placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area and designed
to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person or vehicle.
2. "Remotely-delivered mine" means a mine not directly emplaced but delivered by artillery,
missile, rocket, mortar, or similar means, or dropped from an aircraft. Mines delivered from a landbased
system from less than 500 metres are not considered to be "remotely delivered", provided that
they are used in accordance with Article 5 and other relevant Articles of this Protocol.
3. "Anti-personnel mine" means a mine primarily designed to be exploded by the presence,
proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons.
4. "Booby-trap" means any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or
injure,

and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently harmless

object or performs an apparently safe act.

5. "Other devices" means manually-emplaced munitions and devices including improvised
explosive devices designed to kill, injure or damage and which are actuated manually, by remote
control or automatically after a lapse of time.
6. "Military objective" means, so far as objects are concerned, any object which by its nature,
location, purpose or use makes an effective contribution to military action and whose total or partial
destruction, capture or neutralization, in the circumstances ruling at the time, offers a definite
military advantage.
7. "Civilian objects" are all objects which are not military objectives as defined in paragraph 6 of
this Article.
8. "Minefield" is a defined area in which mines have been emplaced and "mined area" is an area
which is dangerous due to the presence of mines. "Phoney minefield" means an area free of mines
that simulates a minefield. The term "minefield" includes phoney minefields.
9. "Recording" means a physical, administrative and technical operation designed to obtain, for the
purpose of registration in official records, all available information facilitating the location of
minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices.
10. "Self-destruction mechanism" means an incorporated or externally attached automaticallyfunctioning
mechanism which secures the destruction of the munition into which it is incorporated
or to which it is attached.
11. "Self-neutralization mechanism" means an incorporated automatically-functioning mechanism
which renders inoperable the munition into which it is incorporated.
12. "Self-deactivating" means automatically rendering a munition inoperable by means of the
irreversible exhaustion of a component, for example, a battery, that is essential to the operation of
the munition.
13. "Remote control" means control by commands from a distance.
14. "Anti-handling device" means a device intended to protect a mine and which is part of, linked
to, attached to or placed under the mine and which activates when an attempt is made to tamper
with the mine.
15. "Transfer" involves, in addition to the physical movement of mines into or from national
territory, the transfer of title to and control over the mines, but does not involve the transfer of
territory containing emplaced mines.

Article 3 - General restrictions on the use, of mines, booby-traps and other devices

1. This Article applies to:
(a) mines;
(b) booby-traps; and
2
(c) other devices.
2. Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict is, in accordance with the provisions of this
Protocol, responsible for all mines, booby-traps, and other devices employed by it and undertakes to
clear, remove, destroy or maintain them as specified in Article 10 of this Protocol.
3. It is prohibited in all circumstances to use any mine, booby-trap or other device which is
designed or of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering.
4. Weapons to which this Article applies shall strictly comply with the standards and limitations
specified in the Technical Annex with respect to each particular category.
5. It is prohibited to use mines, booby-traps or other devices which employ a mechanism or device
specifically designed to detonate the munition by the presence of commonly available mine
detectors as a result of their magnetic or other non-contact influence during normal use in detection
operations.
6. It is prohibited to use a self-deactivating mine equipped with an anti-handling device that is
designed in such a manner that the anti-handling device is capable of functioning after the mine has
ceased to be capable of functioning.
7. It is prohibited in all circumstances to direct weapons to which this Article applies, either in
offence, defence or by way of reprisals, against the civilian population as such or against individual
civilians or civilian objects.
8. The indiscriminate use of weapons to which this Article applies is prohibited. Indiscriminate use
is any placement of such weapons:
(a) which is not on, or directed against, a military objective. In case of doubt as to whether an object
which is normally dedicated to civilian purposes, such as a place of worship, a house or other
dwelling or a school, is being used to make an effective contribution to military action, it shall be
presumed not to be so used; or
(b) which employs a method or means of delivery which cannot be directed at a specific military
objective; or
(c) which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to
civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and
direct military advantage anticipated.
9. Several clearly separated and distinct military objectives located in a city, town, village or other
area containing a similar concentration of civilians or civilian objects are not to be treated as a
single military objective.
10. All feasible precautions shall be taken to protect civilians from the effects of weapons to which
this Article applies. Feasible precautions are those precautions which are practicable or practically
possible taking into account all circumstances ruling at the time, including humanitarian and
military considerations. These circumstances include, but are not limited to:
(a) the short- and long-term effect of mines upon the local civilian population for the duration of the
minefield;
(b) possible measures to protect civilians (for example, fencing, signs, warning and monitoring);
(c) the availability and feasibility of using alternatives; and
(d) the short- and long-term military requirements for a minefield.
11. Effective advance warning shall be given of any emplacement of mines, booby-traps and other
devices which may affect the civilian population, unless circumstances do not permit.

Article 4 - Restrictions on the use of anti-personnel mines
It is prohibited to use anti-personnel mines which are not detectable, as specified in paragraph 2 of
the Technical Annex.

Article 5 - Restrictions on the use of anti-personnel mines other than remotely-delivered mines
1. This Article applies to anti-personnel mines other than remotely-delivered mines.
2. It is prohibited to use weapons to which this Article applies which are not in compliance with the
provisions on self-destruction and self-deactivation in the Technical Annex, unless:
(a) such weapons are placed within a perimeter-marked area which is monitored by military
personnel and protected by fencing or other means, to ensure the effective exclusion of civilians
from the area. The marking must be of a distinct and durable character and must at least be visible
to a person who is about to enter the perimeter-marked area; and
(b) such weapons are cleared before the area is abandoned, unless the area is turned over to the
forces of another State which accept responsibility for the maintenance of the protections required
by this Article and the subsequent clearance of those weapons.
3. A party to a conflict is relieved from further compliance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs 2
(a) and 2 (b) of this Article only if such compliance is not feasible due to forcible loss of control of
the area as a result of enemy military action, including situations where direct enemy military action
makes it impossible to comply. If that party regains control of the area, it shall resume compliance
with the provisions of sub-paragraphs 2 (a) and 2 (b) of this Article.
4. If the forces of a party to a conflict gain control of an area in which weapons to which this Article
applies have been laid, such forces shall, to the maximum extent feasible, maintain and, if
necessary, establish the protections required by this Article until such weapons have been cleared.
5. All feasible measures shall be taken to prevent the unauthorized removal, defacement, destruction
or concealment of any device, system or material used to establish the perimeter of a perimetermarked
area.
6. Weapons to which this Article applies which propel fragments in a horizontal arc of less than 90
degrees and which are placed on or above the ground may be used without the measures provided
for in sub-paragraph 2 (a) of this Article for a maximum period of 72 hours, if:

(a) they are located in immediate proximity to the military unit that emplaced them; and
(b) the area is monitored by military personnel to ensure the effective exclusion of civilians.
Article 6 - Restrictions on the use of remotely-delivered mines
1. It is prohibited to use remotely-delivered mines unless they are recorded in accordance with subparagraph
I (b) of the Technical Annex.
2. It is prohibited to use remotely-delivered anti-personnel mines which are not in compliance with
the provisions on self-destruction and self-deactivation in the Technical Annex.
3. It is prohibited to use remotely-delivered mines other than anti-personnel mines, unless, to the
extent feasible, they are equipped with an effective self-destruction or self-neutralization
mechanism and have a back-up self-deactivation feature, which is designed so that the mine will no
longer function as a mine when the mine no longer serves the military purpose for which it was
placed in position.
4. Effective advance warning shall be given of any delivery or dropping of remotely-delivered
mines which may affect the civilian population, unless circumstances do not permit.

Article 7 - Prohibitions on the use of booby-traps and other devices

1. Without prejudice to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict relating to
treachery and perfidy, it is prohibited in all circumstances to use booby-traps and other devices
which are in any way attached to or associated with:
(a) internationally recognized protective emblems, signs or signals;
(b) sick, wounded or dead persons;
(c) burial or cremation sites or graves;
(d) medical facilities, medical equipment, medical supplies or medical transportation;
(e) children's toys or other portable objects or products specially designed for the feeding, health,
hygiene, clothing or education of children;
(f) food or drink;
(g) kitchen utensils or appliances except in military establishments, military locations or military
supply depots;
(h) objects clearly of a religious nature;
(i) historic monuments, works of art or places of worship which constitute the cultural or spiritual
heritage of peoples; or
(j) animals or their carcasses.
2. It is prohibited to use booby-traps or other devices in the form of apparently harmless portable
objects which are specifically designed and constructed to contain explosive material.
3. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 3, it is prohibited to use weapons to which this
Article applies in any city, town, village or other area containing a similar concentration of civilians
in which combat between ground forces is not taking place or does not appear to be imminent,
unless either:
(a) they are placed on or in the close vicinity of a military objective; or
(b) measures are taken to protect civilians from their effects, for example, the posting of warning
sentries, the issuing of warnings or the provision of fences.

Article 8 - Transfers

1. In order to promote the purposes of this Protocol, each High Contracting Party:
(a) undertakes not to transfer any mine the use of which is prohibited by this Protocol;
(b) undertakes not to transfer any mine to any recipient other than a State or a State agency
authorized to receive such transfers;
(c) undertakes to exercise restraint in the transfer of any mine the use of which is restricted by this
Protocol. In particular, each High Contracting Party undertakes not to transfer any anti-personnel
mines to States which are not bound by this Protocol, unless the recipient State agrees to apply this
Protocol; and
(d) undertakes to ensure that any transfer in accordance with this Article takes place in full
compliance, by both the transferring and the recipient State, with the relevant provisions of this
Protocol and the applicable norms of international humanitarian law.
2. In the event that a High Contracting Party declares that it will defer compliance with specific
provisions on the use of certain mines, as provided for in the Technical Annex, sub-paragraph I (a)
of this Article shall however apply to such mines.
3. All High Contracting Parties, pending the entry into force of this Protocol, will refrain from any
actions which would be inconsistent with sub-paragraph I (a) of this Article.

Article 9 -Recording and use of information on minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and
other devices

1. All information concerning minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices shall
be recorded in accordance with the provisions of the Technical Annex.
2. All such records shall be retained by the parties to a conflict, who shall, without delay after the
cessation of active hostilities, take all necessary and appropriate measures, including the use of such
information, to protect civilians from the effects of minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and
other devices in areas under their control.
At the same time, they shall also make available to the other party or parties to the conflict and to
the Secretary-General of the United Nations all such information in their possession concerning
minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices laid by them in areas no longer under
their control; provided, however, subject to reciprocity, where the forces of a party to a conflict are
in the territory of an adverse party, either party may withhold such information from the Secretary-
General and the other party, to the extent that security interests require such withholding, until
neither party is in the territory of the other. In the latter case, the information withheld shall be
disclosed as soon as those security interests permit. Wherever possible, the parties to the conflict
shall seek, by mutual agreement, to provide for the release of such information at the earliest
possible time in a manner consistent with the security interests of each party.
3. This Article is without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 10 and 12 of this Protocol.

Article 10 -Removal of minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices and
international cooperation

1. Without delay after the cessation of active hostilities, all minefields, mined areas, mines, boobytraps
and other devices shall be cleared, removed, destroyed or maintained in accordance with
Article 3 and paragraph 2 of Article 5 of this Protocol.
2. High Contracting Parties and parties to a conflict bear such responsibility with respect to
minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices in areas under their control.
3. With respect to minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other devices laid by a party in
areas over which it no longer exercises control, such party shall provide to the party in control of
the area pursuant to paragraph 2 of this Article, to the extent permitted by such party, technical and
material assistance necessary to fulfil such responsibility.
4. At all times necessary, the parties shall endeavour to reach agreement, both among themselves
and, where appropriate, with other States and with international organizations, on the provision of
technical and material assistance, including, in appropriate circumstances, the undertaking of joint
operations necessary to fulfil such responsibilities.

Article 11 - Technological cooperation and assistance

1. Each High Contracting Party undertakes to facilitate and shall have the right to participate in the
fullest possible exchange of equipment, material and scientific and technological information
concerning the implementation of this Protocol and means of mine clearance. In particular, High
Contracting Parties shall not impose undue restrictions on the provision of mine clearance
equipment and related technological information for humanitarian purposes.
2. Each High Contracting Party undertakes to provide information to the database on mine
clearance established within the United Nations System, especially information concerning various
means and technologies of mine clearance, and lists of experts, expert agencies or national points of
contact on mine clearance.
3. Each high Contracting Party in a position to do so shall provide assistance for mine clearance
through the United Nations System, other international bodies or on a bilateral basis, or contribute
to the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Clearance.
4. Requests by High Contracting Parties for assistance, substantiated by relevant information, may
be submitted to the United Nations, to other appropriate bodies or to other States. These requests
may be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit them to all
High Contracting Parties and to relevant international organizations.
5. In the case of requests to the United Nations, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, within
the resources available to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, may take appropriate steps
to assess the situation and, in cooperation with the requesting High Contracting Party, determine the
appropriate provision of assistance in mine clearance or implementation of the Protocol. The
Secretary-General may also report to High Contracting Parties on any such assessment as well as on
the type and scope of assistance required.
6. Without prejudice to their constitutional and other legal provisions, the High Contracting Parties
undertake to cooperate and transfer technology to facilitate the implementation of the relevant
prohibitions and restrictions set out in this Protocol.
7. Each High Contracting Party has the right to seek and receive technical assistance, where
appropriate, from another High Contracting Party on specific relevant technology, other than
weapons technology, as necessary and feasible, with a view to reducing any period of deferral for
which provision is made in the Technical Annex.

Article 12 - Protection from the effects of minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and other
devices

1. Application
(a) With the exception of the forces and missions referred to in sub-paragraph 2(a) (i) of this
Article, this Article applies only to missions which are performing functions in an area with the
consent of the High Contracting Party on whose territory the functions are performed.
(b) The application of the provisions of this Article to parties to a conflict which are not High
Contracting Parties shall not change their legal status or the legal status of a disputed territory,
either explicitly or implicitly.
(c) The provisions of this Article are without prejudice to existing international humanitarian law,
or other international instruments as applicable, or decisions by the Security Council of the United
Nations, which provide for a higher level of protection to personnel functioning in accordance with
this Article.
2. Peace-keeping and certain other forces and missions
(a) This paragraph applies to:
(i) any United Nations force or mission performing peace-keeping, observation or similar functions
in any area in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations;
(ii) any mission established pursuant to Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations and
performing its functions in the area of a conflict.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a force or
mission to which this paragraph applies, shall:
(i) so far as it is able, take such measures as are necessary to protect the force or mission from the
effects of mines, booby-traps and other devices in any area under its control;
(ii) if necessary in order effectively to protect such personnel, remove or render harmless, so far as
it is able, all mines, booby-traps and other devices in that area; and
(iii) inform the head of the force or mission of the location of all known minefields, mined areas,
mines, booby-traps and other devices in the area in which the force or mission is performing its
functions and, so far as is feasible, make available to the head of the force or mission all
information in its possession concerning such minefields, mined areas, mines, booby-traps and
other devices.
3. Humanitarian and fact-finding missions of the United Nations System
(a) This paragraph applies to any humanitarian or fact-finding mission of the United Nations
System.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a mission to
which this paragraph applies, shall:
(i) provide the personnel of the mission with the protections set out in sub-paragraph 2(b) (i) of this
Article; and
(ii) if access to or through any place under its control is necessary for the performance of the
mission's functions and in order to provide the personnel of the mission with safe passage to or
through that place:
(aa) unless on-going hostilities prevent, inform the head of the mission of a safe route to that place
if such information is available; or
(bb) if information identifying a safe route is not provided in accordance with sub-paragraph (aa),
so far as is necessary and feasible, clear a lane through minefields.
4. Missions of the International Committee of the Red Cross
(a) This paragraph applies to any mission of the International Committee of the Red Cross
performing functions with the consent of the host State or States as provided for by the Geneva
Conventions of 12 August
1949 and, where applicable, their Additional Protocols.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a mission to
which this paragraph applies, shall:
(i) provide the personnel of the mission with the protections set out in sub-paragraph 2(b) (i) of this
Article; and

(ii) take the measures set out in sub-paragraph 3(b) (ii) of this Article.
5. Other humanitarian missions and missions of enquiry
(a) Insofar as paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 above do not apply to them, this paragraph applies to the
following missions when they are performing functions in the area of a conflict or to assist the
victims of a conflict:
(i) any humanitarian mission of a national Red Cross or Red Crescent Society or of their
International Federation;
(ii) any mission of an impartial humanitarian organization, including any impartial humanitarian
demining mission; and
(iii) any mission of enquiry established pursuant to the provisions of the Geneva Conventions of 12
August 1949 and, where applicable, their Additional Protocols.
(b) Each High Contracting Party or party to a conflict, if so requested by the head of a mission to
which this paragraph applies, shall, so far as is feasible:
(i) provide the personnel of the mission with the protections set out in sub-paragraph 2(b) (i) of this
Article, and
(ii) take the measures set out in sub-paragraph 3(b) (ii) of this Article.
6. Confidentiality
All information provided in confidence pursuant to this Article shall be treated by the recipient in
strict confidence and shall not be released outside the force or mission concerned without the
express authorization of the provider of the information.
7. Respect for laws and regulations
Without prejudice to such privileges and immunities as they may enjoy or to the requirements of
their duties, personnel participating in the forces and missions referred to in this Article shall:
(a) respect the laws and regulations of the host State; and
(b) refrain from any action or activity incompatible with the impartial and international nature of
their duties.

Article 13 - Consultations of high Contracting Parties

1. The High Contracting Parties undertake to consult and cooperate with each other on all issues
related to the operation of this Protocol. For this purpose, a conference of High Contracting Parties
shall be held annually.
2. Participation in the annual conferences shall be determined by their agreed Rules of Procedure.
3. The work of the conference shall include:
10
(a) review of the operation and status of this Protocol;
(b) consideration of matters arising from reports by High Contracting Parties according to
paragraph 4 of this Article;
(c) preparation for review conferences; and
(d) consideration of the development of technologies to protect civilians against indiscriminate
effects of mines.
4. The High Contracting Parties shall provide annual reports to the Depositary, who shall circulate
them to all High Contracting Parties in advance of the Conference, on any of the following matters:
(a) dissemination of information on this Protocol to their armed forces and to the civilian
population;
(b) mine clearance and rehabilitation programmes;
(c) steps taken to meet technical requirements of this Protocol and any other relevant information
pertaining thereto;
(d) legislation related to this Protocol;
(e) measures taken on international technical information exchange, on international cooperation on
mine clearance, and on technical cooperation and assistance; and
(f) other relevant matters.
5. The cost of the Conference of High Contracting Parties shall be borne by the High Contracting
Parties and States not parties participating in the work of the Conference, in accordance with the
United Nations scale of assessment adjusted appropriately.
Article 14 - Compliance
1. Each High Contracting Party shall take all appropriate steps, including legislative and other
measures, to prevent and suppress violations of this Protocol by persons or on territory under its
jurisdiction or control.
2. The measures envisaged in paragraph I of this Article include appropriate measures to ensure the
imposition of penal sanctions against persons who, in relation to an armed conflict and contrary to
the provisions of this Protocol, wilfully kill or cause serious injury to civilians and to bring such
persons to justice.
3. Each High Contracting Party shall also require that its armed forces issue relevant military
instructions and operating procedures and that armed forces personnel receive training
commensurate with their duties and responsibilities to comply with the provisions of this Protocol.
4. The High Contracting Parties undertake to consult each other and to cooperate with each other
bilaterally, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations or through other appropriate
international procedures, to resolve any problems that may arise with regard to the interpretation
and application of the provisions of this Protocol.
Technical Annex
1. Recording
(a) Recording of the location of mines other than remotely-delivered mines, minefields, mined
areas, booby-traps and other devices shall be carried out in accordance with the following
provisions:
(i) the location of the minefields, mined areas and areas of booby-traps and other devices shall be
specified accurately by relation to the coordinates of at least two reference points and the estimated
dimensions of the area containing these weapons in relation to those reference points;
(ii) maps, diagrams or other records shall be made in such a way as to indicate the location of
minefields, mined areas, booby-traps and other devices in relation to reference points, and these
records shall also indicate their perimeters and extent;
(iii) for purposes of detection and clearance of mines, booby-traps and other devices, maps,
diagrams or other records shall contain complete information on the type, number, emplacing
method, type of fuse and life time, date and time of laying, anti-handling devices (if any) and other
relevant information on all these weapons laid. Whenever feasible the minefield record shall show
the exact location of every mine, except in row minefields where the row location is sufficient. The
precise location and operating mechanism of each booby-trap laid shall be individually recorded.
(b) The estimated location and area of remotely-delivered mines shall be specified by coordinates of
reference points (normally corner points) and shall be ascertained and when feasible marked on the
ground at the earliest opportunity. The total number and types of mines laid, the date and time of
laying and the self-destruction time periods shall also be recorded.
(c) Copies of records shall be held at a level of command sufficient to guarantee their safety as far
as possible.
(d) The use of mines produced after the entry into force of this Protocol is prohibited unless they are
marked in English or in the respective national language or languages with the following
information:
(i) name of the country of origin;
(ii) month and year of production; and
(iii) serial number or lot number.
The marking should be visible, legible, durable and resistant to environmental effects, as far as
possible.
2. Specifications on detectability
(a) With respect to anti-personnel mines produced after 1 January 1997, such mines shall
incorporate in their construction a material or device that enables the mine to be detected by
commonly-available technical mine detection equipment and provides a response signal equivalent
to a signal from 8 grammes or more of iron in a single coherent mass.
(b) With respect to anti-personnel mines produced before 1 January 1997, such mines shall either
incorporate in their construction, or have attached prior to their emplacement, in a manner not easily
removable, a material or device that enables the mine to be detected by commonly-available
technical mine detection equipment and provides a response signal equivalent to a signal from 8
grammes or more of iron in a single coherent mass.
(c) In the event that a High Contracting Party determines that it cannot immediately comply with
sub-paragraph (b), it may declare at the time of its notification of consent to be bound by this
Protocol that it will defer compliance with sub-paragraph (b) for a period not to exceed 9 years from
the entry into force of this Protocol. In the meantime it shall, to the extent feasible, minimize the use
of anti-personnel mines that do not so comply.
3. Specifications on self-destruction and self-deactivation
(a) All remotely-delivered anti-personnel mines shall be designed and constructed so that no more
than 10% of activated mines will fail to self-destruct within 30 days after emplacement, and each
mine shall have a back-up self-deactivation feature designed and constructed so that, in combination
with the self-destruction mechanism, no more than one in one thousand activated mines will
function as a mine 120 days after emplacement.
(b) All non-remotely delivered anti-personnel mines, used outside marked areas, as defined in
Article 5 of this Protocol, shall comply with the requirements for self-destruction and selfdeactivation
stated in sub-paragraph (a).
(c) In the event that a High Contracting Party determines that it cannot immediately comply with
sub-paragraphs (a) and/or (b), it may declare at the time of its notification of consent to be bound by
this Protocol, that it will, with respect to mines produced prior to the entry into force of this
Protocol defer compliance with sub-paragraphs (a) and/or (b) for a period not to exceed 9 years
from the entry into force of this Protocol.
During this period of deferral, the High Contracting Party shall:
(i) undertake to minimize, to the extent feasible, the use of anti-personnel mines that do not so
comply, and
(ii) with respect to remotely-delivered anti-personnel mines, comply with either the requirements
for self-destruction or the requirements for self-deactivation and, with respect to other antipersonnel
mines comply with at least the requirements for self-deactivation.
4. International signs for minefields and mined areas
Signs similar to the example attached [1] and as specified below shall be utilized in the marking of
minefields and mined areas to ensure their visibility and recognition by the civilian population:
(a) size and shape: a triangle or square no smaller than 28 centimetres (11 inches) by 20 centimetres
(7.9 inches) for a triangle, and 15 centimetres (6 inches) per side for a square;
(b) colour: red or orange with a yellow reflecting border